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Most non-woven products consist of a non-woven web of nylon fibers, impregnated throughout with abrasive grain and bonded with synthetic resins. This design produces a cushioned, three-dimensional material that is extremely pliable and long lasting.

The uniform dispersion of abrasive throughout the web provides a continuous supply of new grain as the old grain and fibers wear away during use.
Non-woven products, with their open mesh construction, are waterproof, washable, resilient, conformable, non-loading, non-conductive, non-metallic,
non-rusting and easily pre-formed to conform to special-shaped workpieces.

Since non-woven products are designed for use where stock removal is not required, they begin where other abrasives leave off. The relatively
non‑aggressive nature of nylon and grit in the non-woven material makes it ideal as a finishing tool. While 60 to 80 grit are considered intermediate
sizes in other products, they are considered coarse for non-woven items.

Used wet or dry, non-woven products offer the following advantages:-

• Controlled cut without stock removal
• Consistent, uniform finish
• Minimized smearing and discoloration of the workpiece (heat is dissipated through the open mesh of the product)
• Increased production; time savings
• Ability to automate operations
• Reduced operator training
• Less maintenance required
• Greater safety than other methods
• Conformability to irregular surfaces These advantages make non-woven products excellent alternatives to bristle brushes, set-up wheels, greaseless compounds, and steel wool.
• Silicon carbide is sharper, cuts faster, and produces finer scratch patterns on most surfaces.
• Aluminum oxide is more durable, tends to last longer, and produces less discoloration on aluminum.
• Ceramic alumina is the most aggressive on certain applications such as hardened steel parts.
• Non-woven hand pads and rolls are available in a non‑abrasive material.


Grit refers to the size of the abrasive grain impregnated into the nylon web. Use of large particles results in more aggressive cut and a coarser finish. Small size particles produce fine surface finishes, if all other conditions are equal.


The product "density" refers to the number of fibers which have been compressed into the nylon web material. Under identical conditions, harder
(closed) density wheels cut faster, last longer, and produce finer finishes than softer (more open) density wheels. Softer density wheels offer greater conformability and have less tendency to load or burn the workpiece.

Fiber Sizing

Several nylon fiber sizes (the denier) are used in the manufacture of non‑woven web material because the fiber size is a significant factor in the coating process, as each produces distinct cutting characteristics. As the intended applications for the specific item determines the fiber size used, the denier is not an optional ingredient and, therefore, is not included in the product offering specifications.

Bonding Agents

Waterproof resins are used in the manufacture of non-woven web material to bond the nylon fibers together and to firmly anchor the abrasive grains throughout the web. A variety of resins are utilized in order to obtain the required softness, hardness, toughness, flexibility and other characteristics required of the finished product.As the intended applications for the specific non-woven item determine the resin type, the resin is not an optional ingredient and, therefore, is not included in the product offering specifications.


Best way to use Non-Woven Products Maximum life and best surface conditioning

1) Direction

Non-woven conventional flap wheels and unified wheels can be run in either direction. Interleaf flap wheels and convolute wheels must be run only in the direction indicated by the arrow.

2) Speed

Speed is an important factor in that it affects product finish, rate of cut and wheel life. In general, fast wheel speeds give harder action and a finer finish; whereas, slower speeds give a softer action and a coarser finish for the same wheel density.

3) Pressure

Light to medium pressure is recommended for most operations. Flap wheels require much lighter pressure to perform properly than other non-woven

wheels. Unified wheels can withstand much higher pressures in order to perform deburring jobs. In all cases, avoid excessive pressure which may

result in wheel deformation and damage to the work surface.

4) Feed Speed

Feed speeds directly affect the number of pieces completed over a given period of time. Slow feed speed reduces the number of workpieces

completed, while producing a shorter scratch pattern. Slow feed speed allows for longer dwell time and permits more work to be done on each

piece. Conversely, a fast feed speed increases the number of workpieces completed, while producing a longer scratch pattern.

5) Oscillation

Oscillation may be used to break up scratch lines and produce a more uniform finish. Additionally, an increase in cut may be experienced. A general

starting point for oscillation is 3/8" amplitude at 200 cycles per minute.

6) Lubricants

Lubricants, such as water, water soluble oil and straight oil, will decrease the heat generated while running, improve the luster and reduce the surface finish. The higher the viscosity of the lubricant, the lower the surface finish (RMS value) produced.


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